Health Literacy Pakistan

Frequently Asked Question?

Frequently Ask Question

COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory illness that may spread to any other organ caused by a coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. ‘CO’ stands for corona, ‘VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease. “19” relates to the year when it started, 2019.
Many COVID-19 symptoms are similar to those of influenza. A test is required to confirm if someone has COVID-19 or another respiratory infection. Symptoms can range from very mild to severe illness. Some people who have been infected don’t have any symptoms. The most common symptoms are fever, cough, and tiredness. Other symptoms can include shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure, muscle or body aches, headache, loss of taste or smell, confusion, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and skin rashes. In addition to these symptoms, infants may have difficulty feeding. Children of any age can become ill with COVID-19. While children and adults experience similar symptoms, children generally have less serious illnesses than adults. In children, symptoms requiring urgent medical attention include difficulty breathing/fast or shallow breathing (also grunting, inability to breastfeed in infants), blue lips or face, chest pain or pressure, confusion, inability to awaken/not interacting, inability to drink or keep down any liquids and severe stomach pain.
A COVID-19 infection can only be diagnosed by microbiological or serological testing.
The virus can spread from an infected person’s mouth or nose in small droplets when they cough, sneeze, speak, sing or breathe. Infectious particles can range in size from larger respiratory droplets to smaller aerosols, and people can be contagious whether or not they are displaying symptoms. A person can be infected when aerosols or droplets containing the virus are inhaled or come directly into contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can more easily spread in poorly ventilated and/or crowded indoor settings, where people tend to spend longer periods of time. Indoor locations, particularly those with poor ventilation, are riskier than outdoor locations.
Treatment is supportive (e.g., providing oxygen for patients with shortness of breath or treatment for fever). Antibiotics are not effective in viral infections; however, antibiotics may be required if a bacterial secondary infection develops. There are three antivirals that are effective. Paxlovid, molnupiravir, and remdesivir have shown efficacy in clinical studies.
Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections. Since COVID-19 is a viral disease, antibiotics are not indicated for the direct treatment. However, it may be required in some instances, such as for treating secondary bacterial infections.
Even though COVID-19 vaccines have been developed as rapidly as possible, they went through rigorous testing in clinical trials to prove that they meet internationally agreed benchmarks for safety and efficacy. Only after meeting these standards, they received approval from WHO and national regulatory agencies.
While the COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective in preventing severe illness and hospitalization, breakthrough infections can still occur. However, the risk of severe illness or death is much lower in vaccinated individuals.
Post-COVID-19, sometimes referred to as ‘Long COVID,’ are term to describe symptoms persisting for weeks or months in some individuals after initial recovery from COVID-19. More research is needed to better understand the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2. Young adults and children without underlying chronic medical conditions, as well as those who experienced mild symptoms during acute COVID-19, have also been affected. The percentage of children with Long COVID is unclear. Surveys suggest long COVID symptoms in children include fatigue, diarrhea, sore throats, headaches, muscle pain, and weakness. Children and adolescents may also be affected by a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), a rare but serious disease that appears to be linked to COVID-19. If your child or a family member is experiencing new or persistent symptoms following acute COVID-19 infection, you should consult your healthcare provider.
Those at the highest risk of severe illness are individuals aged 60 years and above and those with underlying medical diseases like high blood pressure, heart and lung diseases, diabetes, obesity, or cancer. Although these groups are at the highest risk, severe illness, and death have been described even in those without any risk factors.
Yes, pregnant women are at an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 and death, however, there is no indication of malformations in the unborn (Like for Zika virus).
At this time, we still do not know if the virus can be transmitted from a mother to the unborn. To date, SARS-CoV-2 has not been found in vaginal fluid, cord blood, breast milk, amniotic fluid, or the placenta. Research is still ongoing. Pregnant women should continue to follow appropriate precautions to protect themselves from exposure to the virus and seek medical care early, if experiencing symptoms, such as fever, cough, or difficulty breathing. Most countries recommend pregnant women vaccinated against COVID-19.
Yes, breastfeeding should continue with appropriate precautions. There is no evidence to date that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted through breastfeeding. Breastmilk provides antibodies that may protect infants against many different infections. Breastfeeding significantly reduces the risk of death in newborns and young infants, provides lifelong health benefits, and improves the health of mothers as well.
While rare, pets may get COVID-19. However, there is no evidence that pets can transmit the virus to humans.
While rare, pets may get COVID-19. However, there is no evidence that pets can transmit the virus to humans.

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